Drugs of Abuse
that many of our current and future clients have questions about the drug
testing industry and the products and services we offer. We have gathered
many of those important questions and answers to educate you and help you
make better decisions. This section was created as a convenience to our site
visitors and should not be taken in anyway as legal advice.
We are a third party administrator who provides DOT and Non-DOT urine drug testing. Urine is the most commonly used specimen for illicit drugs, reflecting SAMHSAs guidelines.
We use only SAMHSA Nationally accredited labs.
All results, negative or non-negative are reviewed and analyzed by a Medical Review Officer (MRO) and
then emailed to you with the strictest confidentiality.
Alco-Screen O2, Saliva Alcohol testing - available for those companies who are regulated under DOT guidelines and Non-DOT employees.
Blood Alcohol testing - available for non-regulated drug testing
do employers drug test?
Alcohol and drug abuse creates significant safety and health hazards and can result in decreased productivity and poor employee morale. It also can lead to additional costs in the form of health care claims, especially short-term disability claims.
Common reasons employers implement drug testing are to:
* Deter employees from abusing alcohol and drugs
* Prevent hiring individuals who use illegal drugs
* Be able to identify early and appropriately refer employees who have drug and/or alcohol problems
* Provide a safe workplace for employees
* Protect the general public and instill consumer confidence that employees are working safely
that do pre-employment drug testing only, are opening themselves to continuing
problems. Employees, with the help of the internet, know how to get around
drug tests. Some will just stop using for a period of time until they are
hired, then go right back, using and putting your company in jeopardy. Having
a well established random drug testing program means that you care enough
about your employees safety and workplace security to protect them, and yourself,
from the costs of on-the-job alcohol and drug abuse. Random testing programs
have proven effective in reducing workplace incidents and lowering workers
compensation claims, saving employers money.
*Pre-Employment: Pre-employment testing is conducted to prevent hiring individuals who illegally use drugs. It typically takes place after a conditional offer of employment has been made. Applicants agree to be tested as a condition of employment and are not hired if they fail to produce a negative test. However, it is possible for employees to prepare for a pre-employment test by stopping their drug use several days before they anticipate being tested. Therefore, some employers test probationary employees on an unannounced basis. Some states however, restrict this process. Furthermore, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits the use of pre-employment testing for alcohol use.
* Random: Random testing is performed on an unannounced, unpredictable basis on employees whose identifying information (e.g., social security number or employee number) has been placed in a testing pool from which a scientifically arbitrary selection is made. This selection is usually computer generated to ensure that it is indeed random and that each person of the workforce population has an equal chance of being selected for testing, regardless of whether that person was recently tested or not. Because this type of testing has no advance notice, it serves as a deterrent.
*Reasonable Suspicion: Reasonable suspicion testing is similar to, and sometimes referred to, as probable-cause or for-cause testing and is conducted when supervisors document observable signs and symptoms that lead them to suspect drug use or a drug-free workplace policy violation. It is extremely important to have clear, consistent definitions of what behavior justifies drug and alcohol testing and any suspicion should be corroborated by another supervisor or manager. Since this type of testing is at the discretion of management, it requires careful, comprehensive supervisor training. In addition, it is advised that employees who are suspected of drug use or a policy violation not return to work while awaiting the results of reasonable suspicion testing.
*Post-Accident: Since property damage or personal injury may result from accidents, testing following an accident can help determine whether drugs and/or alcohol were a factor. It is important to establish objective criteria that will trigger a post-accident test and how and by whom they will be determined and documented. Examples of criteria used by employers include: fatalities; injuries that require anyone to be removed from the scene for medical care; damage to vehicles or property above a specified monetary amount; and citations issued by the police. Although the results of a post-accident test determine drug use, a positive test result in and of itself can not prove that drug use caused an accident. When post-accident testing is conducted, it is a good idea for employers not to allow employees involved in any accident to return to work prior to or following the testing. Employers also need to have guidelines to specify how soon following an accident testing must occur so results are relevant. Substances remain in a persons system for various amounts of time, and it is usually recommended that post-accident testing be done within 12 hours. Some employers expand the test trigger to incidents even if an accident or injury was averted and hence use term post-incident.
* Return to Duty: Return-to-duty testing involves a one-time, announced test when an employee who has tested positive has completed the required treatment for substance abuse and is ready to return to the workplace. Some employers also use this type of testing for any employee who has been absent for an extended period of time.
What is a DOT and NON-DOT Drug Test?
Workers that fall under Department of Transportation regulations must be given a specific type of drug test. It is a five panel test often referred to simply as a "DOT drug screen," and the chain of custody (COC) used must be a federal form.
DOT drug tests are conducted using only urine specimens. The urine is collected in a single
container and then split into two other containers used for the testing process. These are called
Bottle A (primary specimen) and Bottle B (split-specimen). The urine specimen contained in
Bottle A is analyzed for the following drugs/metabolites:
What other tests are performed on my specimen?
Specimen Validity Testing (SVT) is performed
on primary (Bottle A) specimen by the DOT
contracted HHS-certified laboratory to verify that a specimen has the properties consistent with a
non-altered human urine specimen. SVT includes:
Determination of creatinine concentration.
Creatinine is a substance found in human urine, if
it is not present in the specimen the test is declared a substituted specimen (i.e., is not human
Determination of specific gravity if creatinine concentration is less than 20mg/dL
Determination of pH
Performance of one or more validity tests for oxidizing adulterants
Performance of additional validity tests when certain conditions are observed (e.g., unusual
color or odor, unusual test response for adulterants)
The five drugs tested for a DOT drug screen are:
*DOT added MDMA as of 10/01/2010 and still consider it a 5 panel test
Marijuana metabolites / THC
Amphetamines (including methamphetamine)
Opiates metabolites (codeine, heroin, morphine)
Alcohol Testing (for companies under the DOT Agency requirements for random
employed in positions that do not require drug screening under DOT regulations
are given Non-DOT tests if their companies have drug testing policies in place.
Companies have flexibility in establishing Non-DOT policies and procedures
for drug testing, including what substances to check for and how often testing
drug screen can be identical to the five panel as listed above (though not
using a federal COC).
Mainline has many profiles to choose from. Profiles can be an 11 panel drug screen (as detailed below), or one also with Expanded Opiates.
Mainline's Standard Eleven Panel Drug Screen:
Barbiturates (Seconal, Nembutal, Amytal and Tuinal)
Benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Librium)
Methadone (Dolophine, Methadone Diskets, Methadose)
Propoxyphene (Darvon, Dolene, Doxaphene, Profene 65)
What the employer will need?
All drug tests require a chain of custody form, which we will provide for you, for a qualified SAMSHA approved drug-testing laboratory. You will need to select the reason for test on the form.
A chain-of-custody form is used to document the handling and storage of a sample from the time it is collected until the time it is disposed. It links an individual to his or her sample and is written proof of all that happens to the specimen while at the collection site and the laboratory.
For Non-Dot employers, Mainline is able to setup a Labcorp WebCoc subaccount for your company. This one document, kept on your computer, is used in place of the chain of custody form you now know. Labcorp's patient service centers will create the chain of custody, electronically. The rest of the process is as usual.
will the donor need?
The donor will need to have the chain of custody form in hand when they go to the collection site as well as a photo ID to present to the collector.
should donors go for their test?
Your employees will go to the closest SAMSHA approved Patient Service Centers (collection sites), which we will provide for you. The collection sites are Labcorp PSC, Quest PSC or 3rd Party Sites.
is a Medical Review Officer (MRO)?
A Medical Review Officer (MRO) is a person who is a licensed physician and who is responsible for receiving and reviewing laboratory results generated by an employer's drug testing program and evaluating medical explanations for certain drug test results.
does a drug test determine if a person has been using substances? What are
cut-off levels and what do they determine?
Aside from a breath alcohol test, drug testing does not determine impairment or current drug use. Rather, drug testing determines a specified amount or presence of a drug or its metabolite in urine, blood or an alternative specimen. There is a minimum measurement applied to drug testing so that only traces of a drug or its metabolite above a specified level is reported as positive. This measure is known as a cut-off level, and it varies for each drug. Setting cut-off levels involves understanding the expected results of testing and determining the needs of the employers drug-free workplace program. For instance, if a cut-off level is set low, test results will come back with more false positives as some passive users could test positive. (For example, a low cut-off level could cause a positive result from consuming poppy seeds.) Conversely, a high cut-off level will result in more false negatives, and thus some users may go undetected. However, a high cut-off level lessens the likelihood of taking action against someone based on passive exposure, and for this reason SAMHSAs guidelines set cut-off levels on the high side.
must be accompanied by their parent or legal guardian?
If you are bringing a minor to a Patient Service Center and you are not the legal guardian, you will need to bring a notarized statement signed by a parent or legal guardian authorizing you to give permission for the collection and billing of the tests ordered by the minor's physician.
Results of a urine test show the presence or absence of drug metabolites in
a persons urine. Metabolites are drug residues that remain in the body
for some time after the effects of a drug have worn off. It is important to
note that a positive urine test does not necessarily mean a person was under
the influence of drugs at the time of the test. Rather, it detects and measures
use of a particular drug within the previous few days and has become the defacto
evidence of current use. Because alcohol passes rapidly through the system,
urine tests must be conducted very quickly after alcohol consumption in order
to ensure any degree of accuracy. For this reason, urine tests are generally
not helpful in detecting alcohol use as opposed to illicit and prescription
drug use, which is more easily traced in urine.
Alco-Screen O2 :The Alco-Screen 02 is the simplest, most cost effective method of monitoring for alcohol consumption in a DOT Zero Tolerance testing program. The zero tolerance level for federally mandated DOT testing programs is .02% blood alcohol content (BAC). The Alco-Screen 02 uses this zero tolerance level (.02% BAC) as the detection level set point for the test strip resulting in the simplest method of test administration and interpretation. Alcohol detection using a saliva sample can be more sensitive and accurate compared to breath tests because the relationship between the amount of saliva alcohol content and blood alcohol content is 1:1 while with equivalent breath alcohol content it is .000048:1.
A blood test measures the actual amount of alcohol or other drugs in the blood
at the time of the test. Blood samples provide an accurate measure of the
physiologically active drug present in a person at the time the sample is
drawn. Although blood samples are a better indicator of recent consumption
than urine samples, there is a lack of published data correlating blood levels
for drugs and impairment with the same degree of certainty that has been established
for alcohol. In cases of serious injury or death as the result of an accident,
the only way to determine legal intoxication is through a blood specimen.
There is also a very short detection period, as most drugs are quickly cleared
from the blood and deposited into the urine.
of Custody: A chain-of-custody form is used to document the handling and
storage of a sample from the time it is collected until the time it is disposed.
It links an individual to his or her sample and is written proof of all that
happens to the specimen while at the collection site and the laboratory.
Drug Name: Propoxyphene
Propoxyphene is an opioid medicine that has been marketed in approved drugs such as Darvon and Darvocet since 1957. Propoxyphene is used to relieve mild to moderate pain.
Propoxyphene is a drug often prescribed to treat pain and is related structurally to methadone. Propoxyphene is generally taken orally and its effects peak in 1 - 2 hours. Overdose of propoxyphene effects the brain and can cause severe euphoria. Extended use of propoxyphene can cause respiratory depression, analgesia, stupor, and coma
angel dust, angel hair, angel poke, dust, embalming fluid, fry, flake hog, whack, rocket fuel, squeeze, mist, horse tranq, animal tranq, elephant tranq, tranqs, squeeze, surfer, cyclones, soma, illy, oxone, zoot, peace pill, scuffle, Cadillac, CJ, KJ, TIC, TAC, PCP, amp, hydro, sherm, haze, dank, goon, sherm, super weed, killer weed, elephant, zombie, embalming fluid, hog, pce, tcp, rocket fuel, ka-pow, beam me up Scotty.
Phencyclidine, also known as PCP or Angel Dust, is a hallucinogen that was first marketed as a surgical anesthetic in the 1950's. It was removed from the market because patients receiving it became delirious and experienced hallucinations.
Phencyclidine is used in powder, capsule, and tablet form. The powder is either snorted or smoked after mixing it with marijuana or vegetable matter. Phencyclidine is most commonly administered by inhalation but can be used intravenously, intra-nasally, and orally. After low doses, the user thinks and acts swiftly and experiences mood swings from euphoria to depression. Self-injurious behavior is one of the devastating effects of Phencyclidine
Many opiates, such as Oxycodone, Hydromorphone and Hydrocodone, have seen a dramatic increase in abuse over the last several years. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH) showed that lifetime use of Oxycodone increased 47%, and that of Hydrocodone 27%.1 In addition, the Drug Abuse Warning Network showed that Oxycodone single use (not in combination with other drugs) increased a staggering 295%.
Since the other opiates share structural similarities with morphine, the opiate screening reagents detect additional opiates to varying extents. In the case of Oxycodone, most general opiate screens only detect Oxycodone if it is present at a high concentration.
New screening technology has a specific reagent that can detect Oxycodone as lower levels.
Ask about testing for Oxycodone and Expanded Opiates, OPI4 which consists testing of codeine, morphine, hydrocodone and hydromorphone
Slang Term(s): Aunti, Aunti Emma, Big O, Black hash, Black Russian, Black pill, Black stuff, black tar, Buddha, china white, Chinese molasses, Chinese tobacco,
Chocolate, Dopium, Dover's deck, Dover's powder, Dream gun, Dream stick, Dreams, Easing powder, God's medicine, Gondola, Gong, Goric, Great tobacco,
Gum, Hard stuff, Hocus, Hops, Horse, Indonesian bud, Joy plant, Midnight oil, Mud, O, O.P., Pox, Smack, Tar, Toxy, Toys, Zero A-Bomb, Big H, Boy, Crank, Crop, Brown, Dragon Rock, h, Hell Dust, Harry, Horse, Jive, Junk, Mexican Black Tar, Nose Drop, Shag, Skag, Smack, Shit, Thunder
Opiate refers to any drug that is derived from the opium poppy, including the natural products, morphine and codeine, and the semi-synthetic drugs such as heroin. Opioid is more general, referring to any drug that acts on the opioid receptor.
Opioid analgesics comprise a large group of substances which control pain by depressing the central nervous system. Large doses of morphine can produce higher tolerance levels, physiological dependency in users, and may lead to substance abuse. Morphine is excreted unmetabolized, and is also the major metabolic product of codeine and heroin. Morphine is detectable in the urine for several days after an opiate dose.
Slang Term(s): meth, mtd, juice, green
Methadone is a narcotic analgesic prescribed for the management of moderate to severe pain and for the treatment of opiate dependence (heroin, Vicodin, Percocet, Morphine). The pharmacology of Oral Methadone is very different from IV Methadone. Oral Methadone is partially stored in the liver for later use. IV Methadone acts more like heroin. In most states you must go to a pain clinic or a Methadone maintenance clinic to be prescribed Methadone.
Methadone is a long acting pain reliever producing effects that last from twelve to forty-eight hours. Ideally, Methadone frees the client from the pressures of obtaining illegal heroin, from the dangers of injection, and from the emotional roller coaster that most opiates produce. Methadone, if taken for long periods and at large doses, can lead to a very long withdrawal period. The withdrawals from Methadone are more prolonged and troublesome than those provoked by heroin cessation, yet the substitution and phased removal of methadone is an acceptable method of detoxification for patients and therapists
Name: Marijuana / Cannabinoids
pot, weed, grass, smoke, dope, ganja, reefer, Mary Jane, and Aunt Mary
THC (?9--tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary active ingredient in cannabis (marijuana). When smoked or orally administered, THC produces euphoric effects. Users have impaired short-term memory and slowed learning. They may also experience transient episodes of confusion and anxiety. Long-term, relatively heavy use may be associated with behavioral disorders. The peak effect of marijuana administered by smoking occurs in 20-30 minutes and the duration is 90-120 minutes after one cigarette. Elevated levels of urinary metabolites are found within hours of exposure and remain detectable for 3-30 days after smoking.
Name: Cocaine / Crack
Slang Term(s): Coke, Dust, Toot, Snow, Blow, Lines, Nose Candy, Snowball (cocaine & heroin), Oolies (marijuana laced with crack), Powder, Tornado Rock (Crack), Wicky Stick (PCP, marijuana, and crack)
Big C, Flake, Freebase, Lady, Rock, Snow, Snowbirds, White Crack
Cocaine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and a local anesthetic. Initially, it brings about extreme energy and restlessness while gradually resulting in tremors, oversensitivity and spasms. In large amounts, cocaine causes fever, unresponsiveness, difficulty in breathing and unconsciousnessCocaine is often self-administered by nasal inhalation, intravenous injection and freebase smoking. It is excreted in the urine in a short time primarily as Benzoylecgonine.2,3 Benzoylecgonine, a major metabolite of cocaine, has a longer biological half-life (5-8 hours) than cocaine (0.5-1.5 hours), and can generally be detected for 24-48 hours after cocaine exposure.
What is Crack?
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term crack refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated.
alprazolam, benzodiazepam, bromazepam,
chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, clonazepam, clorazepate, diazepam,
estazolam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam,
oxazepam, quazepam, temazepam, triazolam, Alprazolam Intensol,
Ativan, Dalmane, Diastat, Diazepam Intensol, Dizac, Doral, Halcion,
Klonopin, Librium, Lorazepam Intensol, Paxipam, ProSom, Restoril,
Serax, Tranxene-SD, Tranxene-SD Half Strength, Tranxene T-Tab, Valium, Xanax.
Benzodiazepines are medications that are frequently prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. They produce their effects via specific receptors involving a neurochemical called gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Because they are safer and more effective, Benzodiazepines have replaced barbiturates in the treatment of both anxiety and insomnia. Benzodiazepines are also used as sedatives before some surgical and medical procedures, and for the treatment of seizure disorders and alcohol withdrawal.Risk of physical dependence increases if Benzodiazepines are taken regularly (e.g., daily) for more than a few months, especially at higher than normal doses. Stopping abruptly can bring on such symptoms as trouble sleeping, gastrointestinal upset, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, sweating, trembling, weakness, anxiety and changes in perception. Only trace amounts (less than 1%) of most Benzodiazepines are excreted unaltered in the urine; most of the concentration in urine is conjugated drug. The detection period for the Benzodiazepines in the urine is 3-7 days.
Barbs, barbies, sleepers, blue bullets, blues, pink ladies, pinks, block busters
Barbiturates are central nervous system depressants. They are used therapeutically as sedatives, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates are almost always taken orally as capsules or tablets. The effects resemble those of intoxication with alcohol. Chronic use of barbiturates leads to tolerance and physical dependence. Short acting Barbiturates taken at 400 mg/day for 2-3 months can produce a clinically significant degree of physical dependence. Withdrawal symptoms experienced during periods of drug abstinence can be severe enough to cause death. Only a small amount (less than 5%) of most Barbiturates are excreted unaltered in the urine.
Name: Amphetamine / Methamphetamine
/ MDMA ( Ecstasy)
Amphetamine Slang Term(s):
uppers, speed, benny, dexy, louee, goey, whizz, pep pills. sulph, billy, phets.
Amphetamine is a Schedule II controlled substance available by prescription (Dexedrine®) and is also available on the illicit market. Amphetamines are a class of potent sympathomimetic agents with therapeutic applications. They are chemically related to the human body's natural catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine. Acute higher doses lead to enhanced stimulation of the central nervous system and induce euphoria, alertness, reduced appetite, and a sense of increased energy and power. Cardiovascular responses to Amphetamines include increased blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. More acute responses produce anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, and psychotic behavior. The effects of Amphetamines generally last 2-4 hours following use and the drug has a half-life of 4-24 hours in the body. About 30% of Amphetamines are excreted in the urine in unchanged form, with the remainder as hydroxylated and deaminated derivatives.
What is Methamphetamine?
Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive stimulant that strongly activates certain systems in the brain.
What does it look like?
Methamphetamine is a crystal-like powdered substance that sometimes comes in large rock-like chunks. When the powder flakes off the rock, the shards look like glass, which is another nickname for meth. Meth is usually white or slightly yellow, depending on the purity.
How is it used?
Methamphetamine can be taken orally, injected, snorted, or smoked.
What is Ecstasy?
MDMA or Ecstasy (3-4-methylenedioxymethampheta-mine), is a synthetic drug with amphetamine-like and hallucinogenic properties. It is classified as a stimulant.
What does it look like?
Ecstasy comes in a tablet form that is often branded, e.g. Playboy bunnies, Nike swoosh, CK.
How is it used?
Taken in pill form, users sometimes take Ecstasy at raves, clubs and other parties to keep on dancing and for mood enhancement.
According to results of a NIDA-sponsored survey, drug-using employees are 2.2 times more likely to request early dismissal
or time off, 2.5 times more likely to have absences of eight days or more, three times more likely to be late for work, 3.6 times
more likely to be involved in a workplace accident, and five times more likely to file a workers compensation claim.
Nearly 7% of adults employed full-time and 9% of those employed part-time currently use illegal drugs
[SAMHSA] (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration )
More than 70% of substance abusers hold some type of job.
(American Council of Drug Education) Studies have shown that substance-abusing employees function at about 67% of their capacity.
Employees who use drugs are 3.6 times more likely to be involved in a workplace accident
and 5 times more likely to file a workers compensation claim.
survey of callers to the national cocaine helpline revealed
that 75 percent reported using drugs on the job, 64 percent
admitted that drugs adversely affected their job performance, 44 percent sold drugs to other employees, and 18 percent had stolen
from co-workers to support their drug habit.
of all current drug users aged 18 and older
(8.3 million adults) were employed in 1997. This includes 6.7 million full-time workers and 1.6 million part-time workers
http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/bennotes.htm#notes Substance Use and Abuse among Workers in 2007
Substance use and abuse is a concern for employers. Most drug users, binge and heavy drinkers, and people with substance use disorders are employed.
2007, of the 17.4 million current illicit drug users age 18 and over, 13.1
million (75.3 percent) were employed.
Similarly, among 55.3 million adult binge drinkers, 44.0 million (79.4 percent) were employed, and among 16.4 million persons reporting heavy alcohol use, 13.1 million (79.6 percent) were employed.
Of the 20.4 million adults classified with substance dependence or abuse, 12.3 million (60.4 percent) were employed full-time.
The prevalence of substance use among workers is lower than the prevalence among the unemployed, but a sizeable number of employed individuals use drugs and alcohol.
In 2007, 8.4 percent of those employed full-time were current illicit drug users, and 8.8 percent reported heavy alcohol use.
A Good Drug-Free Workplace Program can lead to:
Decreasess in: Increases in:
*accidents *profit *downtime *customer satisfaction *turnover *health status *workers' compensation costs *employee morale *employee discipline problems
Many variables may affect the amount of time that a drug remains detectable in the urine or other biological samples, including a drug's half-life, the subject's state of hydration and fluid balance, frequency of use, route of administration, cut-off concentration used by the testing lab to detect the drug, and many other variables. Each person and circumstance is different, and the best way to avoid detection of an abusable drug is to not use the drug.
General guidelines are available for detection times. Many drugs stay in the system from 2 to 4 days, although chronic use of marijuana can stay in the system for 3 to 4 weeks or even longer after the last use. Drugs with a long half-life, such as diazepam, may also stay in the system for a prolonged period of time. Drugs can be detected in hair samples up to six months, although urine samples are used for most workplace drug screening tests. Examples of drugs that can be detected in hair-testing include alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines.
Prescription Brand Name Examples
Detection Time in Urine
|Amphetamine||Stimulant||speed||Dexedrine, Benzedrine||Up to 2 days|
|Barbiturates||depressants / sedatives / hypnotics||downers, barbs, reds||Amytal, Fiorinal, Nembutal, Donna||short-acting: 2 days
long-acting: 1-3 weeks
(based on half-life)
|Benzodiazepines||depressants / sedatives / hypnotics||bennies||Valium, Ativan, Xanax, Serax||therapeutic dose: 3 days
chronic use: 4-6 weeks or longer
|Cocaine (benzoyl ecgonine metabolite)||Stimulant||coke, crack, rock cocaine||N/A||Up to 4 days|
|Codeine||Analgesic / Opiate||N/A||N/A||2 days|
|Ethyl alcohol, ethanol||depressants / sedatives / hypnotics||alcohol, liquor, beer, wine booze||N/A||urine: 2 to 12 hours
serum/plasma: 1 to 12 hours
|Heroin||Analgesic / Opiate||smack, tar, chasing the tiger||N/A||2 days|
|Hallucinogen||pot, dope, weed, hash, hemp||Marinol, Cesamet||Single use: 2 to 7 days
Prolonged, chronic use: 1 to 2 months or longer
|Methadone||Analgesic / Opiate||fizzies||Dolophine||3 days|
|Methamphetamine||Stimulant||speed, ice, crystal, crank||Desosyn, Methedrine||Up to 2 days|
|Methaqualone||depressants / sedatives / hypnotics||ludes, disco bisquits, 714, lemmons||Quaalude (off U.S. market)||Up to 14 days|
|Stimulant||ecstacy, XTC, ADAM, lover's speed||N/A||Up to 2 days|
|Morphine||Analgesic / Opiate||N/A||Duramorph, Roxanol||2 days|
|Phencyclidine||Hallucinogen||PCP, angel dust||N/A||8-14 days, but up to 30 days in chronic users|
|Propoxyphene||Analgesic / Opiate||N/A||Darvocet, Darvon (all form of propoxyphene withdrawn from US market in November 2010)||6 hours to 2 days|
*Note: This table should be used as a general guideline only. Many variables may affect the amount of time that a drug remains detectable in the urine or other biological samples, including a drug's half-life, the subject's state of hydration and fluid balance, frequency of use, route of administration, cut-off concentration used by the testing lab to detect the drug, or other variables.
Drug Name: Alcohol
Booze, Hooch , Brew , Swill , Firewater, Moonshine, Juice, Red-Eye
Alcohol is one of the most widely used drug substances in the world. Alcohol use and binge drinking among our nations youth is a major public health problem:
* Alcohol is used by more young people in
the United States than tobacco or illicit drugs.1
* Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 75,000 deaths per year.2
* Alcohol is a factor in approximately 41% of all deaths from motor vehicle crashes.3
* Among youth, the use of alcohol and other drugs has been linked to unintentional injuries, physical fights, academic and occupational problems, and illegal behavior.4
* Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder.5
* Drug use contributes directly and indirectly to the HIV epidemic, and alcohol and drug use contribute markedly to infant morbidity and mortality.5
1.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, 2007.
2.CDC. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lostUnited States, 2001. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2004;53(37):866870.
3 U.S. Department of Transportation. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Web-based Encyclopedia.
4 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The relationship between mental health and substance abuse among Adolescents. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1999.
5 Naimi TS, Brewer RD, Mokdad A, Denny C, Serdula MK, Marks JS. Binge drinking among US adults. JAMA 2003;289:70-75.
Drug Name: Methaqualone
Q, Quaaludes, Ludes, Sopors, Vitamin Q, Lemmon 714, Lemons, Love Drug
In general, Qualudes are very similar to alcohol and other depressants. Methaqualone combines both sedative and hypnotic properties. The drug produces depression of the central nervous system (a reduction in the heart and breathing rate and blood pressure) and the onset of its effects usually occurs within 10 to 20 minutes of ingestion and may last 6 to 10 hours when taken orally.
Small doses create a feeling of euphoria, relaxation, hornyness, and/or sleepiness. Larger doses can bring about depression, irrational behavior, poor reflexes and slurred speech.
Negative effects can include a high level of tolerance (you need more to produce the same feeling), reduced heart rate, reduced respiration, and reduced muscular coordination.
Synthetic Marijuana On The Rise
Looks like pot, but 'far worse'
Name: Synthetic Marijuana/ THC
K2, Spice, "Aroma, Mr. Smiley, Zohai, Eclipse, Black Mamba, Red X Dawn, "Blaze, and Dream.
The drugs, often sold in gas station and convenience stories under names like K-2 and Spice, are known to cause bouts
of paranoia and agitation, as well as psychosis.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say that 1 in 9 high school seniors has tried the drugs. Calls to poison
centers about the drugs rose from 2,900 in 2010 to 7,000 in 2011 and hit 1,200 in the first two months of 2012.
Makers produce chemicals synthetically and then spray them onto dry herbs and plants, hoping to mimic the appearance of
marijuana. The chemicals are three to five times more potent than the THC found in marijuana, leading to symptoms
including loss of consciousness, paranoia, and occasionally, psychotic episodes, says Tod Burke, a professor of criminal
justice at Radford University in Virginia.
As of March 2011, 20 states had imposed bans and additional legislation is pending in 37 states, Professor Burke says.
Synthetic marijuana makers have tried to stay ahead of law enforcement by constantly altering their products chemically,
replacing banned substances with new ones that have similar properties. This has lured workers searching for ways to get
high but also pass drug tests, as well as teens seeking the latest new high.
The medical community is still scratching their heads over the symptoms and
treatment for synthetic marijuana intoxication. But the short-term symptom
patterns that are beginning to emerge are not like those of natural marijuana.
The adverse effects of the synthetic form are more prevalent, and include
aggressiveness, paranoia, anxiety, agitation, high blood pressure, heavy
sweating, heart palpitations, irritability, muscle rigidity, and convulsions.
Synthetic pot uses a botanical blend as its base: bay
bean, blue lotus, lions
tail, lousewort, Indian warrior, dwarf skullcap, maconhabrava, pink lotus,
marshmallow, red clover, rose, Siberian Motherwort, vanilla, and honey.
These plant ingredients arent bad in and of themselves. The problem comes
in when the botanicals are sprayed with an active compound like JWH-018,
which is what makes the synthetic drug toxic. The name JWH-018 comes
from the scientist John W. Huffman, who synthesized versions of TCH to
study its effects in the lab.
One of the reasons that synthetic pot can produce a greater affect is that its
ability to bond the brains cannabis receptor (CB1) is five times greater than
what THC is capable of. This means a bigger bang for the buck and greater
risk of serious, long-lasting neurological problems.
Forbes - Alice G. Walton, Contributor
Daniel B. Wood | Christian Science Monitor